The glass is a non-crystalline solid which can transfer the behavior of a hard and fragile solid to a melt-shaped molten material and vice versa. This behavior, called the transfer of glass, is in the range of brittle materials or semi-crystalline droplets.
About 1,500 BC, glass bottles were used for the first time in Egypt.
The term “Glass” is derived from the Middle Persian and the word “Shishak”.
Glasses are usually crisp and light. The most commonly used glass is lime glass, which can be obtained from about 75% silicon dioxide (SiO2) and sodium oxide (Na2O) obtained from sodium salt, lime (CaO) and a few minor additions. The name of the glass is usually to refer to this species.
Silicate glass and its application
Silicate glasses are more transparent and hence are used extensively, including their abundant use in the building industry and in glass windows. However, today it is more often used as a coating of other materials, because it can take any shape. Another use of glass is its traditional use as a bowl, pot, bottle, and so on. If the glass is rigid, it will be used in the manufacture of marble, rosary and glass decorative items. The glass can be reflective or light brittleness. These features can be obtained by cutting or polishing and used in the production of lenses, charms or crystalline vessels. It can also be stained with or colored with metal salt. This makes it possible to use a lot of glass in artwork and colored glass. Although the glass is fragile but very stable, the life of some of the glasses that have been found dates back to the beginning of the glass.
Different definitions of glass in knowledge
The definition of glass in the knowledge is different, glass is said to be any solid that does not have any crystalline structure (such as a solid beryl), and exhibits heat and melt behavior such as glass transition. This kind of glass can be said of various materials such as metal alloys, ion lava (melted ion), aqueous solution, molecular fluids and polymers. In many applications (bottle, eye protection), polymeric glass (acrylic glass), polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate is a lighter option than silicate glass.
Definition of certain culture: Physical glass is a transparent, ultra-fragile and alkaline silicate mixture. They throw these objects in the furnace and in the form. The glass does not have a geometric shape and can thus be customized, but the simplest definition of glass is that the glass is rigid, with no crystalline structure in its structure.
Glass melting furnaces
The most common furnaces used to make glass tanks are tanks. The length of this furnace is about 40 meters and its width is about 12 meters. The work of these furnaces is continuous and the material is always ready to be recharged. Refractory materials in glass melting furnaces are of particular importance and should be resistant to abrasion, since the materials in the furnace will strongly place the furnace in abrasion against wear. The life of the refractories of glass melting furnaces is up to 4 years. The capacity of these furnaces is approximately 1,500 tons. Glass forming machines are attached to the bottom of the glass. After the original glass material and its percentage are carefully determined and the waste material is separated, the material enters the furnace because the slight variation of the material has a great effect on the properties of the glass, especially its shape, its shape and its subsequent performance. The material that entered the furnace gradually grew warmer. At about 100 degrees, it loses its physical energy, and at about 600 degrees Celsius, it is mixed with sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate. At 900 degrees, it combines sodium carbonate with silica, calcium metasilicate at 1000 degrees, and at a temperature of 1400 to 1500 The degree of melting and refining of the glass ends in the furnace, but at this temperature the glass is smooth and has a very low viscosity, which is impossible to operate. To work on the glass, we have to put the material into paste. To do this, the glass is lowered to about 1,000 degrees Celsius.
Silicon dioxide (with the chemical composition of SiO2) is the base material of the glass. In nature, due to the collision of lightning with the sand, the quartz glass reaction occurs, resulting in a roots-like hollow structure called a lightning strand.
Silica glass, which is made primarily of silica, is required for special applications, due to its transfer temperature above 1200 ° C, but is not widely used by the general public. Therefore, several other raw materials are added to its constituents to make the manufacturing process Easier to do. One of these is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which reduces the glass transition temperature. Sodium carbonate causes the glass to be soluble in water, in order to prevent this, it adds some limestone (calcium oxide CaO) that is obtained from limestone, with magnesium oxide (MgO) and alumina (Al2O3), so that the glass of stability Find more. The glass is ultimately made up of 70 to 74 percent by weight of silica, and the glass is a useful lime. This glass contains about 90 percent of the glass produced.
Most of the glasses available are other raw materials to make their features change slightly, for example crystal glass and some crystal species, are brighter than regular glasses because they have a refractive index, a better spray and a higher reflection. Adding barium increases the refractive index. Thorium dioxide to high refractive index